Utah FORGE: Well 58-32 Stimulation Conference Paper and Data
The U.S. Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE) Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) is a field laboratory that provides a unique opportunity to develop and test new technologies for characterizing, creating and sustaining Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) in a controlled environment.
In 2018, the U.S. DOE selected a site in south-central Utah for the FORGE laboratory. Numerous geoscientific studies have been conducted in the region since the 1970s in support of geothermal development at Roosevelt Hot Springs. A vertical scientific well, 58-32, was drilled and tested to a depth of 2290 m (7515 ft) GL in 2017 on the FORGE site to provide additional characterization of the reservoir rocks. The well encountered a conductive thermal regime and a bottom hole temperature of 199degC (390degF). More than 2000 natural fractures were identified, but measured permeabilities are low, less than 30 micro-darcies. Induced fractures indicate that the maximum horizontal stress trends NNE-SSW, consistent with geologic and well observations from the surrounding area. Approximately 45 m (147 ft) at the base of the well was left uncased. A maximum wellhead pressure of 27.6 MPa (4000 psig) at an injection rate of ~1431 L/min (~9 bpm) was measured during stimulation testing in September 2017. Conventional diagnostic evaluations of the data suggest that hydraulic fracturing and shearing occurred. Estimates of the stress gradient for delta_h_min range from of 16.7 to 17.6 kPa/m (0.74 to 0.78 psi/ft). A gradient of 25.6 kPa/m (1.13psi/ft) was calculated for delta_V.
In 2019, the 2017 open-hole stimulation in well 58-32 was repeated with injection rates up to 2385 L/min (15 bpm). Two additional stimulations were conducted in the cased portion of the well; one to stimulate critically stressed fractures and the second to test noncritically stressed fractures. Breakdown of the zone spanning critically-stressed fractures occurred at a surface pressure of
approximately 29.0 MPa (4200 psig). Although stimulation of the noncritically stressed fractures was interrupted by failure of the bridge plug beneath the perforated interval, micro-seismic data suggests stimulation of the fractures may have been initiated at a surface pressure of 45.5 MPa (6600 psig). These stimulation results support the conclusion the Mineral Mountains granitoid is an appropriate
host for EGS development.
Micro-seismicity was monitored during the stimulations using surface and downhole instrumentation. Five seismometers and a nodal array of 150 seismic sensors were deployed on the surface. A Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) cable and a string of 12 geophones were deployed in well 78-32, drilled to a depth of 998 m (3274 ft) GL. A broadband sensor and a high-temperature geophone were
deployed in well 68-32, drilled to a depth of 303 m (994 ft) GL. More than 420 micro-seismic events were detected by the geophone string. Other instruments detected fewer events.
DOE Project Number: EE0007080
DOE Project Lead: Lauren Boyd
Last Updated: 6 months ago
Submitted Jun 25, 2019
Energy and Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah